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Electrical conductivity and porosity in stainless steel 316L scaffolds for electrochemical devices fabricated using selective laser sintering

Title: Electrical conductivity and porosity in stainless steel 316L scaffolds for electrochemical devices fabricated using selective laser sintering
Authors: Wu, B
Ibrahim, KA
Brandon, NP
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Battery electrode microstructures must be porous, to provide a large active surface area to facilitate fast charge transfer kinetics. In this work, we describe how a novel porous electrode scaffold, made from stainless steel 316L powder can be fabricated using selective laser sintering by proper selection of process parameters. Porosity, electrical conductivity and optical microscopy measurements were used to investigate the properties of fabricated samples. Our results show that a laser energy density between 1.50–2.00 J/mm2 leads to a partial laser sintering mechanism where the powder particles are partially fused together, resulting in the fabrication of electrode scaffolds with 10% or higher porosity. The sample fabricated using 2.00 J/mm2 energy density (60 W–1200 mm/s) exhibited a good electrical conductivity of 1.80 × 106 S/m with 15.61% of porosity. Moreover, we have observed the porosity changes across height for the sample fabricated at 60 W and 600 mm/s, 5.70% from base and increasing to 7.12% and 9.89% for each 2.5 mm height towards the top surface offering graded properties ideal for electrochemical devices, due to the changing thermal boundary conditions. These highly porous electrode scaffolds can be used as an electrode in electrochemical devices, potentially improving energy density and life cycle.
Issue Date: 26-May-2016
Date of Acceptance: 25-May-2016
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/33587
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2016.05.096
ISSN: 1873-4197
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Start Page: 51
End Page: 59
Journal / Book Title: Materials and Design
Volume: 109
Copyright Statement: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Keywords: 0912 Materials Engineering
0913 Mechanical Engineering
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Earth Science and Engineering
Dyson School of Design Engineering
Grantham Institute for Climate Change