Zero-valent iron for the abatement of arsenate and selenate from flowback water of hydraulic fracturing

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Title: Zero-valent iron for the abatement of arsenate and selenate from flowback water of hydraulic fracturing
Author(s): Sun, Y
Chen, SS
Tsang, DC
Graham, NJ
Ok, YS
Feng, Y
Li, XD
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 μg L(-1) As(V) and 350 μg L(-1) Se(VI) in high-salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L(-1) ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second-order rate expression with the observed rates of 4.51 × 10(-2)-4.91 × 10(-1) and 3.48 × 10(-2)-6.58 × 10(-1) h(-1) (with 0.5-10 g L(-1) ZVI), respectively. The results showed that Se(VI) removal significantly decreased with increasing ionic strength, while As(V) removal showed little variation. Common competing anions (nitrate, bicarbonate, silicate, and phosphate), present in shallow groundwater and stormwater, caused marginal Se(VI) desorption (2.42 ± 0.13%) and undetectable As(V) desorption from ZVI. The competition between As(V) and Se(VI) for ZVI removal depended on the initial molar ratio and surface sites, which occurred when the Se(VI) concentration was higher than the As(V) concentration in this study. The characterization of As(V)- and Se(VI)-loaded ZVI by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis revealed that ZVI gradually converted to magnetite/maghemite corrosion products with lepidocrocite in flowback water over 30 days. Similar corrosion compositions were confirmed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions regardless of the molar ratio of As(V) to Se(VI). The high reactivity and stability of ZVI showed its suitability for in-situ prevention of As(V) and Se(VI) migration due to accidental leakage, spillage, or overflow of flowback water.
Publication Date: 5-Oct-2016
Date of Acceptance: 26-Sep-2016
ISSN: 1879-1298
Publisher: Elsevier
Start Page: 163
End Page: 170
Journal / Book Title: Chemosphere
Volume: 167
Copyright Statement: © 2016, Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Keywords: Arsenic
Hydraulic fracturing
Ionic strength
Permeable reactive barrier
Zero-valent iron
Environmental Sciences
MD Multidisciplinary
Publication Status: Published
Conference Place: England
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Civil and Environmental Engineering

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