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A micro-scale fiber-optic force sensor fabricated using direct laser writing and calibrated using machine learning

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Title: A micro-scale fiber-optic force sensor fabricated using direct laser writing and calibrated using machine learning
Authors: Thompson, AJ
Power, M
Yang, G-Z
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: Fiber-optic sensors have numerous existing and emerging applications spanning areas from industrial process monitoring to medical diagnosis. Two of the most common fiber sensors are based on the fabrication of Bragg gratings or Fabry-Perot etalons. While these techniques offer a large array of sensing targets, their utility can be limited by the difficulties involved in fabricating forward viewing probes (Bragg gratings) and in obtaining sufficient signal-to-noise ratios (Fabry-Perot systems). In this article we present a microscale fiber-optic force sensor produced using direct laser writing (DLW). The fabrication entails a single-step process that can be undertaken in a reliable and repeatable manner using a commercial DLW system. The sensor is made of a series of thin plates (i.e. Fabry-Perot etalons), which are supported by springs that compress under an applied force. At the proximal end of the fiber, the interferometric changes that are induced as the sensor is compressed are read out using reflectance spectroscopy, and the resulting spectral changes are calibrated with respect to applied force. This calibration is performed using either singular value decomposition (SVD) followed by linear regression or artificial neural networks. We describe the design and optimization of this device, with a particular focus on the data analysis required for calibration. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept force sensing over the range 0-50 μN, with a measurement error of approximately 1.5 μN.
Issue Date: 28-May-2018
Date of Acceptance: 17-Apr-2018
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/59158
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.014186
ISSN: 1094-4087
Publisher: Optical Society of America (OSA)
Start Page: 14186
End Page: 14200
Journal / Book Title: Optics Express
Volume: 26
Issue: 11
Copyright Statement: © 2018 The Author(s). Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License . Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Funder's Grant Number: EP/L014149/1
EP/P012779/1
Keywords: Science & Technology
Physical Sciences
Optics
OPTICAL-FIBER
SPECTROSCOPY
BIOSENSORS
VIVO
Calibration
Equipment Design
Equipment Failure Analysis
Fiber Optic Technology
Interferometry
Lasers
Machine Learning
Neural Networks (Computer)
Physical Phenomena
Refractometry
Writing
0205 Optical Physics
1005 Communications Technologies
0906 Electrical And Electronic Engineering
Publication Status: Published
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Division of Surgery
Computing
Faculty of Medicine



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