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Multi-metal 4D printing with a desktop electrochemical 3D printer

Title: Multi-metal 4D printing with a desktop electrochemical 3D printer
Authors: Chen, X
Liu, X
Ouyang, M
Chen, J
Taiwo, O
Xia, Y
Childs, P
Brandon, N
Wu, B
Item Type: Journal Article
Abstract: 4D printing has the potential to create complex 3D geometries which are able to react to environmental stimuli opening new design possibilities. However, the vast majority of 4D printing approaches use polymer based materials, which limits the operational temperature. Here, we present a novel multi-metal electrochemical 3D printer which is able to fabricate bimetallic geometries and through the selective deposition of different metals, temperature responsive behaviour can thus be programmed into the printed structure. The concept is demonstrated through a meniscus confined electrochemical 3D printing approach with a multi-print head design with nickel and copper used as exemplar systems but this is transferable to other deposition solutions. Improvements in deposition speed (34% (Cu)-85% (Ni)) are demonstrated with an electrospun nanofibre nib compared to a sponge based approach as the medium for providing hydrostatic back pressure to balance surface tension in order to form a electrolyte meniscus stable. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy shows that bimetallic structures with a tightly bound interface can be created, however convex cross sections are created due to uneven current density. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical properties of the printed strips shows that mechanical deformations can be generated in Cu-Ni strips at temperatures up to 300 °C which is due to the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch generating internal stresses in the printed structures. Electrical conductivity measurements show that the bimetallic structures have a conductivity between those of nanocrystalline copper (5.41×106 S.m−1) and nickel (8.2×105 S.m-1). The potential of this novel low-cost multi-metal 3D printing approach is demonstrated with the thermal actuation of an electrical circuit and a range of self-assembling structures.
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance: 21-Feb-2019
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10044/1/68002
DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40774-5
ISSN: 2045-2322
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal / Book Title: Scientific Reports
Volume: 9
Copyright Statement: © 2019 The Author(s). Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Sponsor/Funder: Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC)
Engineering & Physical Science Research Council (E
Funder's Grant Number: EP/K002252/1
J15119 - PO:500174140
Keywords: Science & Technology
Multidisciplinary Sciences
Science & Technology - Other Topics
ELECTRICAL-CONDUCTIVITY
LASER
ELECTRODEPOSITION
RESISTIVITY
FABRICATION
POLYMERS
WIRE
Publication Status: Published
Article Number: 3973 (2019)
Online Publication Date: 2019-03-08
Appears in Collections:Faculty of Engineering
Earth Science and Engineering
Dyson School of Design Engineering



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